The author of the discovery is                Dr. Yan Beliavsky             

Pressure Gradient Elastic Wave:
The Process of Energy Transfer in Gases

Pressure Gradient Elastic Waves are sound-type waves (sound, ultrasound, infrasound). PGEW propagate with sound velocity, is reflected, is involved in the waves interference. This type of wave has unique properties. The occurrence of PGEWs leads to intense energy transfer in a volume, which is manifested in the heating and cooling of walls.

We know that sound affects the temperature process in gases. Scientific articles have been published describing the effects of sound on heating, cooling, drying, etc. The same class of phenomena includes temperature separation in vortex tubes (Ranque effect) and heating of the bottom of a cavity mounted opposite the nozzle (Hartmann–Sprenger effect). The operation of these devices is always accompanied by a loud sound. The temporary lack of an adequate explanation had previously forced us to attribute these phenomena to experimental physical paradoxes.

Dr. Beliavsky unexpectedly discovered temperature separation while working with a vortex chamber (Article 1). The temperature at the periphery reached + 465 °C and the temperature in the center decreased to ˗45°C (air entered the vortex chamber at room temperature ~20°C).
This effect cannot be explained on the basis of existing theories. This circumstance prompted the author to conduct additional investigations to understand the physics of the phenomenon.

A fast density fluctuation always creates an elastic sound wave in a gas. This position has been proven mathematically (under the assumption of the occurrence of a single fluctuation of compression or rarefaction). Rapid compression of a gas leads to its heating, rapid expansion to cooling. An ordinary sound wave represents a totality of individual compression and rarefaction waves that alternate and move at the velocity of sound away from the source of a wave while the source oscillates or pulsates. Heating in the compression wave is compensated by cooling in the rarefaction wave, so the temperature at any point in space does not change.

Pressure Gradient Elastic Waves occurs when three conditions are simultaneously satisfied in a region of space or in a volume:

  • the volume is filled with a compressible medium (gas);
  • there is a pressure gradient (gravity, rotation, acceleration, deceleration, etc.) inside a volume or region of space;
  • inside this volume, there are density fluctuations (powerful sound, turbulent pulsations).

Under these conditions, the resulting pressure forces act on the zones of sound (turbulent) density fluctuations according to Archimedes law. The action of these forces is faster than the speed of sound. These forces additionally act on the gas, creating a secondary disturbance and, in accordance with Huygens principle, create a secondary wave. This is the Pressure Gradient Elastic Waves. However, these forces act on compression zones and rarefaction zones in opposite directions. PGEWs are a totality of compression waves (that carry heat), propagating in the direction of increasing pressure, and a totality of rarefaction waves (that carry cold), propagating in the direction of decreasing pressure.

The Pressure Gradient Elastic Wave transfers energy within the volume from the low-pressure zone to the high-pressure zone. This energy transfer is manifested in the cooling of the low-pressure zone and in the heating of the wall in the high-pressure zone. The direction of heat transfer is determined by the pressure gradient vector. Pressure Gradient Elastic Wave is a unique natural heat pump.

The Pressure Gradient Elastic Waves concept explains the effects of Ranque and Hartmann–Sprenger, as well as other temperature effects in gases. Experimental results that cannot be explained without the involvement of PGEWs (Article 4) confirm this theory. Understanding the physics of the phenomenon allows us to improve the characteristics of existing devices and create new ones that work using this PGEW principle. Preliminary estimates suggest that these devices that operate on the PGEW principle will be significantly more economical than existing ones.

The results of this research have been published in four scientific articles and reported at numerous scientific conferences. The company PG Wave Ltd. was established to carry out work in this technical area.
The project “New generation of high-efficiency heat pumps operating on the principle of PGEWs” was funded in 2014–2015 and is funded in 2020 (second part) by the Ministry of Energy of Israel.
All intellectual property of the PGEWs project, including the patent, is the property of Dr. Yan Beliavsky.

What can PGEW give us?

  1. A new class of heat pumps will be created that provide cooling and heating (such as in-home air conditioners). New devices can work using any gas and Freon will not be needed. These units will be more efficient than those used today and be able to work in any temperature range.
    For example, desalination plants using the direct evaporation of the sea water cycle will be created. All thermal energy spent on seawater heating and evaporation will be returned to the top of the cycle in this installation. This will result in significant energy savings.
  1. Today, the value of the COP coefficient from the best heat pumps (Freon cycle) is equal to 2÷3. When we create new PGEWs, heat pumps will have a coefficient of energy performance (COP) greater than 4; these devices can be used instead of steam condensers in the steam–water energy cycle. This cycle is used in a significant amount of power plants, on all ocean-faring ships (using fossil fuels), and in all nuclear power plants. Today, these power plants emit 70% thermal energy (thermal pollution). This is because the efficiency of steam turbines is ~ 30%.
    The proposed heat cycle, including a new heat pump operating on PGEW instead of a steam condenser, will use 30% organic and nuclear fuel to generate the same amount of electricity. At the same time, carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced by 70% and thermal pollution will completely disappear.
  1. When and if new heat pumps can convert heat from 50–70 ⁰С to 110–120 ⁰С, electricity can be obtained using an unlimited natural source low potential heat (water warmed by the sun).
  1. If we manage to increase the temperature range of new heat pumps from ~20⁰С to ~ 120 ⁰С, then such installations would allow us to create a new energy industry. Electricity will be generated using the heat from seawater and the surrounding air. Imagine ships with propellers that operate by obtaining heat energy from seawater!









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